At the school level
- A clear definition of the desired behavior
- Teaching the desired behavior
- The use of good feedback that focuses primarily on successes
- immediate, focuses on behavior, at least in the learning phase, regular, fair (Närhi, 2017)
- common ways of adults to intervene in unwanted behavior
- Adults must have common ways of acting!
At grade level
- Clear rules and expectations for behavior
- Structure (e.g. silence sign, working order visible), routines!
- Clearly given instructions, predictability of situations
- Encouraging feedback
- Tasks at the right level (zone of proximal development), alternative ways to perform tasks -> individual progression
- Students' interests are taken into account -> students' participation
- Seating arrangement, taking breaks, varying task types/materials
- Enough adult attention